Revolutionizing Drug Discovery and Delivery
If you had to guess how long it takes for a drug to go from an idea to your pharmacy, what would...
Your Playbook on Sleep, Diet, Exercise, Mindset, Medications & Not Dying from Something Stupid.
At the age of 62, I find myself in peak condition—physically, mentally, and energetically. A variety of performance and biomarker metrics bolster this sentiment. I’m on a personal mission to maintain this pinnacle of health for the next decade, in order to intercept the next generation of therapeutics promising to decelerate, halt, and even reverse aging.
Over the past ten years, my primary focus has been the understanding and exploration of vitality and healthspan. I’ve immersed myself in virtually every publication from the last five years concerning health, healthspan, longevity, longevity diets, exercise strategies, sleep, and more. I’ve absorbed information from myriad podcasts, shared insights on my Moonshots Podcast, and engaged in countless discussions at events like Abundance360 and Abundance Platinum. Additionally, my work with my own longevity-focused companies such as Fountain Life, Lifeforce, Celularity, Vaxxinity, and the $101M Healthspan XPRIZE have offered unique perspectives.
One thing is for sure... there is a TON of information out there and it’s hard to keep it all straight and accessible, which is why I wrote this book.
The aim of Peter’s Longevity Practices is twofold: to simplify and to prescribe. I designed it to be digestible within a few hours and to serve as a practical reference guide you can turn to every day, or weekly as needed. A bridge to serve you over the next three to five years leading up to the next wave of health breakthroughs.
Don’t underestimate the value of this book due to its brevity. The challenge was not in accumulating material, but in curating it to be easily consumable, all while maintaining a rigorous backing of scientific research. After all, what’s the point of amassing a library of health and diet books if they’re left unread, or if you don’t devise a clear, actionable plan for your well-being?
I sincerely hope you find this book beneficial, but more importantly, I hope it inspires you to prioritize your health. In the world of today, health is indeed the new wealth. To quote a favored adage, “The individual who has health has a thousand dreams. The one without it has but one.”
Here’s to an extraordinary decade ahead.
Founder, Exec Chairman, XPRIZE Foundation
Exec. Founder, Singularity / Curator, Abundance360 & Abundance Platinum
Exec. Chairman, Fountain Life;
Author: Abundance, BOLD, Future is Faster, Life Force, Exponential Organizations 2.0
We are in the midst of a healthspan revolution...
I’m sharing my own Longevity Practices—what I’m personally doing to extend my healthspan—that I’ve synthesized over hundreds of interviews during my Abundance Platinum Longevity Trips, and in consultation with the medical team at Fountain Life.
In this first segment of my Longevity Practices, we’ll look briefly at the context in which this healthspan revolution is taking place and explore the concept of “longevity escape velocity.”
Converging exponential technologies such as AI, genomics, and other ‘omics technologies, CRISPR, gene therapy, cellular medicine, and invasive and non-invasive sensors are allowing us to understand why we age and how to slow, stop, and perhaps even reverse aging.
Experts predict that breakthroughs within the next ten years will enable us to add decades onto our healthspan.
Your mission is therefore to maximize your health and vitality by using the most advanced diagnostics to catch disease early, enabling you to stay healthy long enough to intercept the additional breakthroughs racing towards us.
When I was in medical school in the late 1980’s, I distinctly remember one Sunday afternoon watching a documentary on the topic of “long-lived sea life.” It turns out that bowhead whales from the Arctic are able to live for 200 years, and Greenland sharks double that life expectancy with an impressive lifespan of 400 and 500 years.
I remember thinking, “If they can live that long, why can’t we?”
As an engineer, I figured it was either a hardware or software problem, and that it wouldn’t be too long before we could solve it.
My dear friend Ray Kurzweil, Co-Founder of Singularity University and Futurist at Google, and Aubrey de Grey, a leading biomedical gerontologist, both speak about a concept called “longevity escape velocity.” It’s an intriguing notion that goes something like this:
Today, by some estimates, science and medicine are adding about three months to your lifespan every year. In the near future, science will extend your lifespan by more than a year for every year you remain alive. Once that happens, we can begin to think about true longevity.
That’s longevity escape velocity.
Ray’s prediction is that we’ll reach longevity escape velocity in the next ten to twelve years.
Professor George Church, PhD of Harvard Medical School echoes a similar timeframe.
According to Dr. Church, “The exponential technologies that have improved the speed and cost of reading, writing and editing of DNA and their resulting gene therapies, now apply to the category of aging reversal.”
He adds: “I think age-reversal advances could mean that we reach longevity escape velocity in a decade or two, within the range of the next one or two rounds of clinical trials.”
So, what does that mean? Can we extend the healthy human lifespan past today’s record of 122? Can humans live past 200 years? Or even indefinitely?
What if the regular cycles of clinical trials can be significantly shortened by advancements in AI, and what if we learn to prevent and eventually eradicate cancers, heart diseases, and Alzheimer’s?
I recently sat down with Dr. David Sinclair, Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and author of Lifespan, to discuss these topics during a recent episode of my Moonshots Podcast.
I opened with a question of how long might humans be able to live? Is there an upper age limit? Sinclair’s answer was inspiring: “There is no biological limit... of course there isn’t,” he began. “We are the same stuff as a whale that can live a lot longer than us (200 years), we’re built of the same stuff as tortoises, pretty much the same stuff as trees that can live thousands of years, it’s a software problem.”
“I’m putting my career on the line,” he continued. “It’s a software problem and what’s interesting about biology is that software encodes the ability to rebuild the hardware. So we need to reset the software. And when we do that in my lab, we find that tissues regenerate in animals; organoids, which are mini human organs, regenerate, they fix themselves and they function like they are new again. So it is, in my view, 99% a software problem.
How long you live is a function of many factors: where you were born, your genetics, your diet, and your mindset. Most people imagine that longevity is mostly inherited, that the genetic cards you are dealt have predetermined your lifespan. You may be surprised by the truth.
In 2018, after the analysis of a 54-million-person ancestry database, scientists announced that lifespan has little to do with genes.
In fact, heritability is accountable for roughly 7% of your longevity.
The highest estimates for heritability verge around 30%—which still means at a minimum, you’re 70% in control of how you age.
The power of shaping your healthspan is much more in your hands than you might have imagined.
It is this idea of extended healthspan that is my motivation for putting together this Longevity Practices book. It is also my desire to create something that is simple and easy to reference and consume. My own experience is that many longevity “how to” books are way too long. I hope you find this consumable and usable.
I would like to thank Helen Messier, MD/PhD, Chief Medical and Scientific Officer of Fountain Life for her review and support in creating these protocols. Many thanks as well to George Shapiro, MD, Medical Innovation Officer of Fountain Life for his input on therapeutics.
In the short chapters that follow, I’ll be sharing details on my diet, sleep, exercise and other practices that I’m currently using to extend my healthspan.
I implore you to consider adopting some of these, and to think through what YOU would do with an additional thirty years of healthy life...
I am an educator, entrepreneur, and scientist. I am not a clinician and cannot make clinical recommendations for prevention or treatment of any disease. In making these suggestions, I am expressing only my own views, and sharing what I am personally doing for my health.
No one should start taking any supplement or medications without first checking with his or her personal physician. Some supplements can be dangerous for people with certain pre-existing medical conditions and supplements can interfere with some prescription drugs. Supplements can and will affect people differently.
In general, the FDA is limited to post-market enforcement, because unlike drugs that must be proven safe and effective for their intended use before marketing, there are no provisions in the law for the FDA to approve dietary supplements for safety before they reach the consumer. Note: The evidence of benefit for most of these supplements comes from laboratory experiments, and/or from epidemiology data, not from human clinical trials.
Supplements should only be purchased from trusted retailers and brands. Testing has shown that many supplements are tainted with unlisted ingredients and/or do not contain the amount of the supplement listed on their label.
For additional, more detailed recommendations in the categories of Sleep, Exercise, Diet and Supplements, please take a look at Life Force, a book jointly written by me in partnership with Tony Robbins and Robert Hariri, MD/PhD.
The nutrients (or non-nutrients) you consume become your body, your mind, your spirit. Do you overindulge in good-tasting (sugar-rich) but destructive foods? Or do you craft a sensible diet and practice intermittent fasting to maximize your energy and longevity?
There are actions you can take right now to increase your potential healthspan and ensuring that you have a healthy diet that works for you is one of them.
In this segment, I’ll discuss a few simple steps you can take to improve your diet based on my discussions with Dr. Mark Hyman and other nutritionists such as Dr. Guillermo Rodriguez Navarrete. Below I’ll also share details on what I eat (and don’t eat) to increase my longevity.
What you eat and drink, how much you eat, when you eat, and especially how you eat and drink are critically important.
The problem is that there is no “one diet” that serves everyone. In fact, thousands of different diet books have been published over time, and over 5 million are sold in the U.S. alone every year, so the field is diverse and complicated at best.
The following is what I personally do. I do believe that some of the details below are somewhat fundamental for everyone. But ultimately, what is best for you will depend upon your genetics, age, microbiome, environmental exposures, health objectives and your physician’s advice. (Please note: Additional details and backup information for many of these practices can be found in my book Life Force.)
Next is a summary related to the diet practices that I personally follow:
No Sugar or High Glycemic Foods: I think of sugar as a poison. I do my best to stay away from sugar, simple carbohydrates, and processed starches. The human body never evolved to consume the levels of sugar in most diets today. Human physiology evolved on a diet containing very little sugar and virtually no refined carbohydrates. In fact, sugar probably entered into our diets by accident. It is likely that sugarcane was primarily a “fodder” crop, used to fatten pigs, though humans may have chewed on the stalks from time to time.
The effects of added sugar intake can be devastating including higher blood pressure, inflammation (cardiac and neuro), weight gain, diabetes, fatty liver disease and fuel for cancer. Increased blood sugar levels are directly linked to an increased risk for heart attack and stroke. On the other hand, reduced blood sugar levels have been linked to lower blood pressure and cholesterol and have been shown to lower the risk of heart attack, stroke, and heart-related death.
Sugar is addictive and hard to quit. Studies with rats have shown that sugar can be as addictive as cocaine. Every year as part of Abundance360, I join nutritionist Dr. Guillermo Rodriguez Navarrete to take members through a “22 Day No Sugar Challenge.” We do this as a group on WhatsApp. The communal nature of “doing it together” is incredibly useful. It takes about three weeks for your brain and body to eliminate cravings for sweets and begin craving healthier foods that satisfy more of your actual nutritional needs.
In my recent discussions with Mark Hyman, MD, a physician and author of the bestselling book Young Forever, he notes “when you eat sugar, it slows your metabolism down, and it increases hunger hormones. So you’re hungrier, you’re gaining weight, and you can’t burn the fat.” Sugar consumption increases levels of the hormone insulin whose primary purpose is to turn that sugar into stored fat.
For males, as well as for females, sugar intake results in significant hormonal problems— and perhaps most shockingly, new evidence proves that sugar shrinks your brain’s hippocampus, which is your memory center. So the next time you have a sugar craving, think about how it may literally shrink your brain cells.
As Dr. Hyman remarks, “93% of Americans are metabolically unhealthy… they have high blood sugar, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or they’re overweight, or they have already had a heart attack or a stroke.” This means, in effect, that a mere 7% of us are in good metabolic health. And, Dr. Hyman goes on, “that’s driven by our diet primarily.”
Personally, I don’t eat dessert. When it’s offered, I have conditioned myself to say “no” immediately, so I’m not tempted to even have it on the table in front of me. When I’m feeling a craving for something sweet (and everyone does), on occasion I will satisfy it with a bit of dark chocolate (>75% dark cacao).
What Else I DON’T Eat: Beyond avoiding sugar, simple carbohydrates, and processed starches which all turn readily into sugar in your body, I don’t eat dairy products or beef. My test results show that I have an immune response to the casein protein component in dairy that can drive inflammation and I avoid the red meat in beef because of its high saturated fat content and the association of red meat with cancer, especially colon cancer as well as cardiovascular disease. Although grass-fed beef can be a healthy part of some diets, it is easier for me to decrease consumption by avoiding it altogether.
A Whole-Plant Diet, as much as I can. There’s no question that consuming whole plants is a major plus. As such, I’m focused on spinach, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, avocado, asparagus (and most other unprocessed veggies) with a heavy helping of extra virgin olive oil. I’ll typically have a Greek salad with added avocado and protein such as fish, chicken or legumes for lunch.
Nuts, Beans & Legumes for Protein: I try and take in as much plant protein as possible from nuts (typically macadamias and almonds), as well as properly soaked and prepared beans and legumes which are high in protein (soybeans, lentils, white beans, cranberry beans, split peas, pinto beans, kidney beans, black beans, navy beans, and lima beans). See below.
Protein: Protein is an essential building block of life. You need it for building and repairing tissues like muscles, bones, and skin, as well as for producing hormones and enzymes; transporting nutrients and oxygen; supporting immune function; and providing energy to each of your cells.
Dr. Hyman notes that “some believe we should limit protein (especially animal protein) and amino acids to silence mTOR and activate autophagy.” But, he adds, the data isn’t so clear: when we abstain from animal proteins altogether, and the longevity pathway mTOR
becomes “silenced for long periods, we can’t create new proteins or build muscle.” For maximum longevity we need to balance the anabolic mTOR pathway which builds up our tissues with the catabolic AMPK pathway which stimulates autophagy and cleans up all
the damaged cells and proteins.
Typically I eat protein from the following sources:
As I mentioned, I personally stay away from beef.
Protein Intake Goals: This year, I am endeavoring to add ten pounds of additional muscle mass to my frame and to accomplish this I need to take in a lot of extra protein. Typical advice suggests 0.80 grams of protein per pound of body weight (1.6 grams per kg). But what I’ve read suggests that is too low, especially as we need to maintain muscle mass as we get older, so my personal goal is now 1.0 gram of protein per pound of body weight. I take in a whopping 150 grams/day (I weigh about 145 pounds).
Note: It is important to not consume a day’s worth of protein all in one sitting, but spread it out over three to four servings during the course of the day. Doing this will maximize muscle protein synthesis, enhance recovery, sustain an anabolic state, optimize nutrient
utilization and also manage appetite.
During my days when I’m doing a heavy weight workout and trying to consume maximum protein, here’s an example of what I’ll consume on a typical workout day:
|Whey protein shake||25 grams||120|
|Almond milk||2 grams||80|
|Nutri11 drink||11 grams||145|
|Athletic greens||2 grams||50|
|Chicken breast||43 grams||230|
|Whey protein shake||25 grams||120|
|Almond milk||2 grams||80|
|Chicken breast||43 grams||230|
Note: I’ve recently discovered a great “hot” protein drink that I have used to replace my coffee in the morning called Nutri11 produced by nutritionist Dr. Guillermo Rodriguez Navarrete. Nutri11 has zero sugar and 11 grams of protein. I LOVE the way it tastes.
Sodas: I’ve eliminated 100% of sodas from my diet.
Fruit Juice: I’ve eliminated 100% of high-fructose fruit juices, which can spike my blood sugar. Fructose especially in liquid form can increase uric acid levels, blood pressure and appetite.
Alcohol: I’ve eliminated almost all alcohol, save for an occasional glass of red wine. Alcohol truly has very little medicinal benefits and can play havoc with sleep. It is also a major driver of microbiome disruption and leaky gut.
Water + Athletic Greens: I aim to drink 2+ liters of water per day, prioritizing a fresh spring water like Fiji. In the morning I mix a package of Athletic Greens (AG1). AG1 is a low-calorie (50 calories in total), nutrient-dense, comprehensive daily drink packed with 75 vitamins, minerals, and whole food-sourced ingredients. It supports key areas of health, including energy, immunity, gut health, and hormonal balance. Its all-in-one formulation is designed to boost overall wellness, making it a healthy addition to your daily routine.
Morning Hot Drink Routine: I will typically have a morning cup of decaf coffee. I recently learned from my genetics that too much caffeine isn’t the best thing for me. As an alternative to coffee, I will typically have a hot mug of MUD\WTR which is a black tea powder containing a number of beneficial mushrooms or a hot mug of Nutri11 (high in protein with no sugar or carbs). On the tea side, I personally love Moroccan mint tea.
Fasting / Timing of Meals: Over the years, I have experimented with various time-restricted or “intermittent fasting” diet programs. I have recently given these up for two reasons: first, because there seems to be no real benefits. A 2020 clinical trial of 116 volunteers on a 16-hour (off), 8-hour (on) eating regimen found no weight loss and no cardiometabolic benefits. The second reason for giving up on intermittent fasting is because of my desire to consume 150 grams of protein over the course of the day on a distributed basis. focus on whole foods, and along with the protein mentioned above, this keeps me feeling full and thus my overall calorie intake is well controlled. Minimizing overall calories has proven to promote longevity in almost all animal models tested including non-human primates.
ProLon Fast Mimicking Diet: There does appear to be good evidence that longer fasting periods are pro-longevity supporting autophagy. One of the best ways to get the benefit of longer fasts without the pain is something called the “ProLon Fasting Mimicking Diet,” which supports healthy weight loss & cellular rejuvenation. It’s a 5-day program that is relatively painless and something I’ve been doing twice per year. My Longevity Physician tells me that ideally I would do this once a month for three months in a row. More information is available here www.prolonfast.com.
CGM – Measuring My Blood Glucose: High blood glucose levels are a challenge to the body. High blood glucose is a major cause of inflammation in the body , and a contributor to heart disease and dementia. I use a “Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM)” such as those supplied by Levels as well as the FreeStyle Libre. My goal is to measure which foods spike my blood glucose. It also keeps me aware of my eating habits in the same way that my Oura ring helps me monitor my sleeping habits. Stress, lack of sleep and timing of eating can all impact your blood sugar response even to the same food.
So what type of exercise should you strive to incorporate in your life? How often and how much?
When I think of exercise, I’m using it to accomplish two objectives:
Below we’ll dive into both of these, I’ll share my own exercise routines, and explain why exercise is so important as a pro-longevity practice.
Adding muscle to your frame is fundamental for health and longevity. My own personal goal this year is to add ten additional pounds of skeletal muscle.
Why? A number of studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between longevity and muscle mass. One study, published in the journal Aging, looked at data from over 10,000 people and found that those with the highest muscle mass were 30% less likely to die during the study period than those with the lowest muscle mass. Another study, published in the journal The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, found that people with sarcopenia (a condition characterized by low muscle mass) had a 50% increased risk of death from all causes.
One reason for the benefit of increased muscle mass is its role in preventing injuries from falling. As it turns out, many deaths occur when prolonged sarcopenia (i.e., loss of muscle mass) ultimately leads to a fall, resulting in a fractured hip or pelvis, followed by hospitalization, pneumonia, and ultimately death. (Note: According to a 2019 study in Acta Orthopaedica, in adults over the age of 65 years old, the one-year mortality rate after a hip fracture is 21% for those whose fracture is surgically repaired. If the fracture is not repaired, the one-year mortality jumps to 70%.)
For this reason, building and maintaining muscle mass is absolutely critical, and this is not a “once and done” activity. Building muscle needs to become part of your regular routine. Muscle mass decreases approximately 3–8% per decade after the age of 30 and this rate of decline is even higher after the age of 60.
There are a number of things that we can do to help preserve muscle mass, including: exercising regularly with heavy weights, eating a healthy diet high in protein, getting enough sleep, and managing stress.
Heavy Weight Workout: I work out three times per week using heavy weights for both my upper and lower body. Each session is an hour long guided by a trainer who pushes me harder than I can typically push myself. If I can occasionally squeeze in a fourth workout during the week, I will absolutely prioritize that.
Katalyst Workout: Last year I purchased a Katalyst Suit for use at home. Katalyst uses electricity to stimulate your muscles to contract; it is called electro muscle stimulation (EMS). This is a way to help you build strength or power in a 20-minute, at-home session. This helps me maintain muscle mass when I’m short on time and it also helps me create variety in my workout. Katalyst is also a fun alternative to the gym to break up the routine.
Creatine: Before each heavy weight workout, I consume five grams of creatine. Research shows supplementing with creatine can double your strength and lean muscle gains when compared to training alone. Creatine, a natural substance in muscle cells, enhances muscle growth and strength in several ways: by increasing ATP production for high-intensity workouts, promoting cell signaling for muscle repair, boosting cell hydration for muscle size, stimulating protein synthesis, reducing protein breakdown, and lowering myostatin levels to increase muscle growth potential.
At-Home Quick Workouts: In between my heavy weights, I will work out at home with simple exercises: push-ups, abdominal bicycle, sit-ups, v-ups, squats, and lunges. One of the great apps I love for pushing me through a daily exercise routine is called the “7-Min Workout.” It’s developed by Johnson & Johnson and is free in the App Store. The app includes a high-intensity, circuit training workout, with aerobic and resistance exercises using only body weight.
Measuring Muscle Mass / Whole-Body Composition: Measuring how your muscle mass changes is important. You must measure what matters. To do this, I use the InBody H20N, a smart weight analyzer that goes beyond weight, measuring whole-body composition including lean muscle and body fat percentage. It helps me monitor and gamify my goals. I also measure my body composition in greater detail during my annual upload at Fountain Life. DEXA scans and MRI measurements give enhanced detail of my lean and fat tissue and where it is located.
Having plenty of muscle is great, but what about the metabolic health of your muscle and its mitochondria? In other words, the ability of your mitochondria (the powerplants of your cells) to convert oxygen and glucose or fat into energy for your body in an efficient fashion? VO2 max, or maximal oxygen uptake, is the way that we measure that efficiency. It’s a measure of the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can use during intense exercise.
It’s a key indicator of cardiovascular fitness and aerobic endurance. A higher VO2 max generally indicates a greater capacity for aerobic exercise and endurance.
VO2 max is important for several reasons, including: (i) Cardiovascular health, reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke; (ii) Physical fitness and mobility; (iii) Chronic disease prevention, reducing the risk of diabetes, hypertension, and certain types of cancer; (iv) Mental health and cognitive function, reducing the risk of depression, anxiety, and cognitive decline, including conditions like Alzheimer’s disease; and (v) Longevity.
Ultimately, several studies have found a direct correlation between VO2 max and longevity. Higher VO2 max levels in middle age have been associated with increased survival rates in older age.
1. Steady-State Cardio: I endeavor to get at least three (ideally four) days each week of moderate “Zone 2” cardio exercise for 45 – 60 minutes. Zone 2 training has been shown to be the best way to improve the functioning and efficiency of your mitochondria. For me, this involves getting my heart rate to 110 bpm – 115 bpm and holding it steady through light jogging / brisk walking, cycling, or tennis. My go-to is a stationary bicycle where I can take my board and team Zoom calls that otherwise would have me sitting around.
Note: Here’s how you calculate your Zone 2 heart rate:
Note: You can also do a lactate threshold test that will determine your exact Zone 2 heart rate, which is something I do at Fountain Life during my annual Upload.
2. Interval Training Cardio: 1 - 2 days a week, I replace a steady-state cardio workout with a High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) workout. I warm up for 5 - 10 minutes, and then alternate between 1 minute of high-intensity exercise (such as sprinting or fast cycling) and 1 - 2 minutes of low-intensity recovery. I repeat this cycle for 20 - 30 minutes.
Walking Meetings: During and after Covid, I’ve made it a habit to do many of my in-person meetings as “Walk and Talk” sessions. My daily goal is to exceed 10,000 steps measured on my Apple Watch / iPhone. I wear a heart rate monitor that allows me to get my heart rate into Zone 2 (which for me is about 110 - 115 bpm) and maintain it there for an hour, three times per week.
Walking Desk / Stationary Bike: To help me reach and exceed my 10,000-steps goal, I have been using a walking desk whenever I’ve been office bound. Every Zoom or phone call can be done on a walking desk. As I like to say, “sitting is the new smoking”! In addition, I recently purchased a TechnoGym Stationary Bicycle that helps me track my Zone 2 heart rate and creates a double duty benefit to every Zoom board call.
Measuring Cardio / Heart Rate: I use a Polar Verity Sense to measure my heart rate during workouts. It’s an optical heart rate monitor that I wear on my forearm, providing me with freedom of movement and multiple options for viewing and recording my workouts.
As we grow older, your biggest enemy is no longer sugar, or even lack of sleep, it’s INJURY. An injury can cause a sequence of events to occur that can unravel all of the pro-longevity work you’ve done. A fall that breaks any bone or tears a ligament can result in a prolonged period of bedrest that can wipe away many months of muscle accumulation or VO2 max improvements.
The antidote here is a set of protocols focused on balance and flexibility / stretching. As we get older, we tend to get stiffer and more unstable. Maintaining or gaining flexibility and working on proprioception which is an awareness of the position and movement of your body are critical in preventing injury. Personally, I have to admit that flexibility is my Achilles heel and I probably need to sign up for some yoga courses!
In a 2018 study published in The Lancet, researchers looked at the link between physical activity and mortality.With data from over 1 million people, the study found that individuals who engaged in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week had a 28% lower risk of death from any cause.
But the data gets even more compelling.
Subjects who engaged in 750 minutes per week—or 12.5 hours—had a mind-blowing 42% lower risk of death compared to those who never exercised.
There is no known therapy or drug with this type of well-studied effect on human lifespan.
Even just regular, frequent movement—especially outside, in fresh air—has the potential to transform your mood, maintain your heart health (protecting you from the number one killer in the world!), and significantly boost your creativity and problem-solving skills. That’s because when you exercise your muscles release myokines into your bloodstream. These myokines go to your brain where they regulate physiological and metabolic responses as well as affect cognition, mood, and emotions. They also aid in the formation of new neurons and increased brain plasticity.
Another recent study found that participants who walked over 4,000 steps a day had healthier brain tissue, better memory, as well as superior cognitive function, compared to those who walked fewer than 4,000 steps per day.
So, if you don’t yet exercise regularly, start somewhere. Ideally, you’ll get to 10,000 steps a day plus three times a week of weight training. But as you can see, just 4,000 steps a day can be the difference between life and death. Between a healthy brain and Alzheimer’s—or a number of other debilitating diseases.
In 2022, a friend Regan Archibald collaborated with my coach, Dan Sullivan, Founder of Strategic Coach to create “Your Fitness 50 Benchmark” as a simple means of self-assessment, goal setting and following your progress.
As Regan and Dan have said, living to 100 isn’t the problem most of us will face, the problem is the condition in which we arrive. Imagine having the fitness levels of the healthiest 50-year-olds, at the age of 100. Your future self will appreciate the time you spend taking care of your health and the Fitness 50 Benchmarks are a simplified way to increase longevity.
Each of the Fitness 50 Benchmarks can be viewed as a diagnostic predictor of diseases caused by aging and are early indicators for all-cause mortality. I think that Dan’s Fitness 50 Benchmarks are the easiest way to measure your progress toward your lifetime extender goal. No blood draws, stool tests, or DNA swabs are needed.
Dan Sullivan and Regan Archibald Lifetime Extender Collaboration © eastwesthealth2022
The three levels are Fit, Fitter, and Fittest. I see them as motivation to make improvements no matter what age or fitness level you are at. I like to work on each of the 11 benchmarks simultaneously once a week, but you are welcome to perform some of the benchmarks in groups or test them as a single activity. The purpose is to have a baseline fitness threshold that you can enjoy when you are 100.
Below are my June 2023 numbers and a simple chart I will use to follow my progress over the years ahead.
|FITTEST||Aug ’23||Aug ’24||Aug ’25|
|Push Ups: 50 Seconds||40||90||_____||_____|
|Plank Hold:||3 min||3 min||_____||_____|
|Grip Tests: Dead hang||90 sec||135 sec||_____||_____|
|Squats: 50 second||50||50||_____||_____|
|Wall Squat Hold:||90 sec||180 sec||_____||_____|
|Lunges: 50 Seconds||50||41||_____||_____|
|Sit-To-Stand: 50 Seconds||10||13||_____||_____|
|Sit-to-Rise: No Hands||0||0||_____||_____|
|Single Leg Balance: 50 Secs||50 sec||>120 sec||_____||_____|
|1-Mile Walk/Run/Elliptical||8 min||10 min||_____||_____|
|25 Burpees||2 min||1.5 min||_____||_____|
Push Ups: Being able to perform forty push-ups (modifications are fine) can reduce stroke and heart disease by 96%, increases strength, and improves growth hormone. *Cardiovascular Health and Strength.
Plank Hold: Improves posture, strengthens the core, and increases flexibility and endurance. Planks increase the basal metabolic rate, decrease the fat percentage, and have been shown to improve immunocyte counts. *Metabolism, Flexibility, Strength, Endurance, and Immune Function.
Grip strength: Increase in strength reduces blood pressure and risk of stroke. Improves testosterone, and growth hormone, and signals muscle readiness for the entire body through the brain, and can be a stand-in measurement for full body strength and muscle mass. *Cardiovascular Health and Strength.
Wall Squat Hold: Enhances lower body stability and strength while reducing resting blood pressure and improving lumbar stability. *Balance, Alignment, Cardiovascular Health, Strength.
Lunges: Benefits the posterior muscles (hamstrings, glutes, and low back) better than other movements. Corrects instability and improves balance. *Strength, Balance, and Alignment.
Sit to Stand: Core strength, endurance, and balance and is a predictor of mortality. *Strength, Balance, Endurance.
Sit to Rise: Musculoskeletal fitness predictor for longevity, balance, and coordination. *Strength, Balance, and Coordination.
Single Leg Balance: Decreases the chances of strokes, and improves cerebral circulation and vascular health. Promotes flexibility, and prevents cognitive decline while warding off premature mortality. *Flexibility, Balance, and Cardiovascular Health.
1-Mile Run/Elliptical/Rowing/Swimming: Improves cardiovascular function, decreases chances of stroke, improves endurance and strength. Increases cognitive function and fitness. Rowing, swimming, and the elliptical are just examples of alternatives to running. Feel free to test yourself on any endurance-related activity for 8-12 minutes to see how you fare. *Endurance, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Brain Health.
Burpees: Increase blood flow, lowers blood pressure, improves strength, coordination, and endurance. Stimulates fat burning and metabolism and lowers the risk of all-cause mortality. *Endurance, Fitness, Strength, and Cardiovascular Health.
Getting enough sleep is one of the most underappreciated and most important elements of extending your healthspan. If you think you’re one of those people who can get away with five or six hours of sleep, the scientific evidence is not on your side.
Sleep expert Dr. Matt Walker, author of the excellent book Why We Sleep, says that sleep is the single most effective thing we can do to reset our mental and physical health each day.
As Matt told me during my 2022 Abundance Platinum Longevity Trip, sleep is “Mother Nature’s best effort yet at immortality.”
There is a direct relationship between how well you sleep and how long you live.
In this segment of my Longevity Practices document, I’ll discuss the power of sleep and what I’m personally doing to improve my sleep and increase my longevity.
In Why We Sleep, Dr. Walker points out that close to 0% of the total population can get away with less than six hours of sleep a night without harming their health.
For most people, regularly getting eight hours of sleep boosts memory retention, enhances concentration, augments creativity, stabilizes emotions, strengthens the immune system, enhances athletic performance, and staves off deadly ailments like cancers and heart disease.
Still not convinced?
For the human brain, the difference between regularly getting a good sleep and a bad sleep is a decrease from 100% to 60% in the brain’s ability to retain new facts. Or as Dr. Walker puts it, a sliding scale between “acing an exam and failing it miserably!”
Sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory.
Throughout the night, we fluctuate between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, where dreaming occurs, and deeper non-rapid eye movement (NREM) cycles. These cycles are responsible for transferring the information accumulated throughout the day from short-term memory to long-term memory.
REM sleep, and the mental images that are created during it, also helps fuel our creativity by generating new connections between ideas that may not be obvious while we’re awake. Matt’s research has shown that REM sleep acts like overnight therapy, by allowing us to process difficult experiences with rehearsed ease.
Sleep gives our body a vital opportunity to recover from the stresses of the day. It aids recovery from inflammation, gives our cells a chance to restock their energy stores, and stimulates muscle repair. It is during sleep that the glymphatic system in our brains clean out all the accumulated junk helping to prevent neurodegenerative diseases and keeping our brains working optimally.
Regularly failing to complete our sleep cycles leads to significant drops in the time taken to reach physical exhaustion, reduced muscle strength, faster build-up of lactic acid, and lower blood oxygen.
With that in mind, here’s what I’m doing to ensure that I consistently get a good night’s sleep…
Earlier in my life (during college and medical school), I would pride myself on making due with as little sleep as possible. My target was typically five and a half hours. My usual excuse was, “I’ll have plenty of time to sleep when I’m dead.” I would routinely take red-eye flights so I could sleep on the flight and hit the ground running. Boy was I wrong. I wish I knew then what I know now!
I now prioritize getting eight hours of high-quality restful sleep. Much of this information is available in more detail in the books Life Force and Why We Sleep.
How Long and When: Today my absolute target is eight hours of sleep, with seven hours as a minimum. It doesn’t mean I always achieve that, but I always try. While I used to be a night owl staying up routinely until 2am, over the past decade I’ve shifted my sleep schedule to much earlier. I’m typically in bed by 9:30pm, and asleep by 10pm, and typically wake on my own around 5:30am to 6am.
Wind Down & Bedtime: One of the most important keys to getting a good night’s sleep is your “wind-down” period, and the timing of when you get to sleep.
Eye Mask: I use a Manta Sleep Mask (https://mantasleep.com/), which I love. It’s super comfortable, blocks out all light, and avoids putting pressure directly on your eyes. I’ve become addicted to this eye mask and own three of them, and always travel with one wherever I go.
Staying Cool at Night: A cooler room supports quality sleep by aiding the body’s natural sleep-friendly drop in core temperature. It also reduces the likelihood of disruptions like sweating and restlessness. This contributes to maintaining uninterrupted, deep REM sleep, promoting overall sleep quality and health.
Blue-Light-Blocking Glasses: About thirty minutes before going to sleep, I put on a pair of blue-light-blocking glasses to ensure my body produces optimal melatonin levels to help me fall asleep more quickly and stay asleep throughout the night.
Mandibular Adjustment Device: I snore and grind my teeth. In the past I used a CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) machine, which works, but they are clumsy and uncomfortable. Now I use a specially-fitted upper and lower mouth guard called a “Mandibular Adjustment Device” that juts my lower jaw forward, keeping my airways open and preventing snoring and apnea. Plus, it also prevents me from grinding my teeth. I love it so much that I can’t go to sleep without it.
Evening Entertainment: I’ve eliminated watching any TV in bed before sleep and stay off my phone and computer for the last thirty minutes before going to sleep, using my blue-light-blocking glasses if I need to interact with devices. As I mentioned above, I typically use Audible to listen to a book and set the timer for fifteen minutes. I guess that’s the adult equivalent of being read a bedtime story!
Sleep Supplement: If I think I’m going to have a challenge getting to sleep, I will use a product called Peak Rest by Lifeforce (www.mylifeforce.com/product/peak-rest).
Oura Ring – Measuring My Sleep: The Oura Ring allows me to gamify my sleep. It gives you a daily “Readiness Score” and a “Sleep Score.” My goal is always to get at least a score of 90 on each (which I don’t always achieve, but it’s my target). Many times, just the thought that I will be measured in the morning is motivation enough to get to sleep early and minimize any alcohol intake. See my typical readouts below and what they mean.
No Late-night Eating: I avoid having any food within ninety minutes of going to sleep (so, typically 7:30pm/8pm for my 9:30pm bedtime). This gives my body enough time to begin digestion and to prevent a full stomach that can lead to heartburn. Not eating before bed also promotes autophagy which is the way your body cleans out all the misfolded proteins and cellular debris. Your microbiome is also much healthier when you don’t eat right before bed, since it allows the beneficial organisms that do best in a calorie poor environment to thrive.
No Caffeine After Noon: Caffeine has a half-life of four to six hours in fast metabolizers and eight to ten hours in slow metabolizers, which means it takes that amount of time for the quantity of caffeine in your body to be reduced by half. Since I am a slow caffeine metabolizer (which I know from my Fountain Genetic analysis), I have chosen to drastically reduce and almost eliminate my coffee consumption, but if I do drink caffeine such as in tea, I ensure to stop before noon.
According to a study in Rand Health Quarterly, poor-quality sleep costs the US over $400 billion per year in lost productivity.
The same study estimates that more than half a million days of full-time work are lost every year due to people sleeping less than six hours.
On an individual level, for most people, sleep is often the first thing they give up. But the popular belief that “you can sleep when you’re dead” is fundamentally damaging to your health, happiness, and longevity.
For example, regularly getting less than six or seven hours of sleep each night doubles your risk of cancer and can increase the likelihood that you’ll develop Alzheimer’s disease. Insufficient sleep can also contribute to major psychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression.
One of the key lessons from Why We Sleep is: if humans had been able to evolve with the ability to get along with less sleep, then we would have.
Yet evolutionarily our bodies retained the need for eight hours.
PLEASE make getting a solid eight hours of sleep a priority for yourself.
If you use an Oura ring, this type of readout (Sleep and Readiness score) on your smartphone will look familiar. My typical Oura Score will range between 88 and 97 (97 is my all-time high). My goal every night is to get a sleep score >90. I provide these here as a reference. Note that in a healthy sleep structure, the majority of your deep sleep should take place in the first half of your night, and REM sleep in the second half.
(i.e., Not dying from something stupid)
Most of us have *no idea* what’s really going on in our bodies. We’re all optimists, thinking we’re fine and everything is in great working order. But as it turns out, your body can be quite masterful at hiding the early stages of disease. What do I mean? Consider the following:
Perhaps you’ve known a friend or colleague who died in their sleep, or someone who went to the hospital with a pain of some type only to find out that they had some advanced stage of disease. Here’s the issue: Whatever disease was discovered during that hospital visit didn’t just start that morning... it’s probably been going on for some time, months if not years, they just had no idea because they hadn’t bothered to look. Most of us know very little about the inner workings of our bodies – we know more about what’s going on in our car or refrigerator!
But as it turns out, you can know. You can know with great confidence if you have cancer or an aneurysm or metabolic disease. Today, advanced diagnostics are able to evaluate your health on a regular basis, with the goal of finding disease at the earliest stage possible.
This is why I co-founded Fountain Life with Tony Robbins and Dr. William Kapp (and now serves as Executive Chairman). Fountain Life is a global platform that provides advanced diagnostics and vetted therapeutics to promote a longer, healthier, and more vital life.
In this segment, I’ll discuss the Fountain Life platform and how I use it to increase my longevity and avoid dying from something stupid, as well as using it to vet the most advanced and effective therapeutic treatments available.
Every year, I go through a Fountain Life “Upload” as part of their Apex Membership program.
The Apex diagnostic program gathers 150 GB of data about you to determine whether you currently have, or are at risk for developing, any of the leading causes of a shortened health and lifespan, specifically cardiovascular disease, cancer, aneurysms, metabolic disease, and neurocognitive dysfunction.
Should any dysfunction be discovered, a Functional Medicine-trained team will employ a systems-based approach to uncover the molecular drivers and provide an ongoing plan to restore cellular health.
The Apex Membership is designed for individuals who desire access to the most advanced comprehensive testing and to a Longevity Physician trained to interpret your results and implement a roadmap based on your advanced testing.
Following are the major imaging and blood tests conducted as part of this Membership offering:
As mentioned above, the body is amazing at hiding disease. We are all optimists about our health. We think we’re doing fine until that moment when you’re rushed to the hospital.
The numbers tell the story.
Out of 100 seemingly healthy adults who go through a Fountain Life screening, 2.0% have a cancer they didn’t know about; 2.5% have an aneurysm; and 14.4% of seemingly healthy members have a serious life-threatening finding they need to address.
So, when do you want to find out about disease? Would you prefer to find out ASAP? Or at the end when it’s too late?
You will eventually find out!
Given the advances in medicine, there is a lot that can be done about cancer, heart disease, neurocognitive and metabolic diseases when detected early. Please look early when you have the greatest chance of taking successful action!
The good news is that modern medicine has given us the tools to be able to prevent and in some cases reverse heart disease, metabolic disease, and even dementia.
I call my annual Fountain Life Upload: “Not dying from something stupid.”
This goes along with wearing your seatbelt, not texting while driving, and wearing a helmet when you ski.
Following is a more complete, yet still partial, list of all the testing done at Fountain.
All data is organized and evaluated by our AI systems and your Functional Medicine-trained Longevity Physician.
You can find more information here: www.fountainlife.com
This represents just a fraction of the testing I do every year at Fountain Life. Here’s a partial list of the additional testing I do to understand what’s going inside my body:
For those who are younger, and are focused on peak vitality, and perhaps don’t have as much disposable income to spend on a full Fountain Life upload, there is another alternative called Lifeforce (www.MyLifeForce.com).
In February 2022 when Tony Robbins and I wrote our book Lifeforce: How New Breakthroughs in Precision Medicine Can Transform the Quality of Your Life & Those You Love, we also started a company of a similar name called “Life Force” to provide a turnkey combination comprehensive blood work, advanced nutraceuticals, hormone optimization protocols, and functional medicine support aimed at delivering a personalized blueprint for increasing vitality from the convenience of your home.
To personalize health, Lifeforce members get comprehensive blood work done every three months (with a phlebotomist sent to your home) looking at 40+ biomarkers to understand what’s specifically driving someone’s health status and performance, as evaluated by your personal dashboard and functional medicine support.
In just the first year, I’m happy to report that Lifeforce has improved the quality of life for over 10,000 people. Let’s look at the data and key findings from our first 10,000 members:
In 2004, my dear friend Ray Kurzweil wrote a milestone book called Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever.
In the book, Kurzweil described bridge one as a set of near-term, life-extending solutions (e.g., a sugar-free diet and muscle-mass-increasing exercise) that should be followed until eventually bridge-two interventions—like cellular reprogramming, synthetic organs, and stem cell therapies—are safely and routinely available in the clinical setting.
Your job is to stay healthy and free of accidents long enough to intercept many of the bridge-two therapies expected later this decade.
Helping you cross “bridge one” is also the goal of Fountain Life.
If this is of interest to you, and I hope it is, check it out at www.fountainlife.com.
Fountain Life is a “Long-Life, Life-Long” Membership.
Peter’s Legal Disclosure: I am an educator, entrepreneur, and scientist. I’m not a clinician and cannot make clinical recommendations for prevention or treatment of any disease. In providing the details below, I am sharing the list of supplements and medications I’m taking based on my physician’s recommendation. No one should start taking any supplement without first checking with his or her personal physician. Some supplements can be dangerous for people with certain pre-existing medical conditions and supplements can interfere with some prescription drugs. Supplements can also affect different people differently. The FDA has reviewed these supplements to determine whether their listed ingredients are safe to consume but no US regulatory authority has reviewed their ability to address cognition, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, or human brain health generally. The evidence of benefit for most of these supplements comes from laboratory experiments, and/or from epidemiology data, not from human clinical trials. Supplements should only be purchased from trusted retailers and brands; testing has shown that many supplements are tainted with unlisted ingredients and/or do not contain the amount of the supplement listed on their label.
Note: The prescription medications listed below are specific to my medical objectives, based upon my blood biomarker testing, and the recommendations of my Fountain Life physician. You will need to determine what is appropriate for you in consultation with your physician. My goal here is only to provide you with a full disclosure of my current regimen for informational purposes.
One of my highest risks from family history and genetics is heart disease secondary to hypercholesterolemia. As a result, following are the cocktail of medications I take to give an ideal cholesterol blood panel. These work for me and keep my ApoB levels at an optimal range.
Nexlizet (180 / 10 mg): This is a combination medication used to treat high levels of cholesterol and other harmful types of cholesterol in the body. It contains bempedoic acid and ezetimibe, which work by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis and reducing the amount of cholesterol your body absorbs from your diet. This medication is taken orally, daily.
Crestor (5 mg): I take Crestor (rosuvastatin), a low-dose statin, for a number of reasons beyond its impact on lowering LDL (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides. It also has anti-inflammatory effects (established in various acute and chronic inflammatory models) as well as antiviral and antioxidant properties. It also helps to stabilize any vulnerable plaque.
Repatha (PCSK9 biologic): This is a biologic medication (a monoclonal antibody) that is used to lower LDL cholesterol levels. It works by blocking a protein called PCSK9, which inhibits the liver’s ability to remove LDL cholesterol from the blood. This is injected (with an autoinjector) every two weeks.
I’m often flying around the world, and as much as I don’t like anything less than eight hours of sleep, many times if I’m across the continent or the globe and need to go on stage, I will sometimes use a nootropic to focus my mind.
Nootropics, often referred to as “smart drugs” or “cognitive enhancers,” are substances that aim to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions like memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
While caffeine is a commonly used nootropic, I’ve reduced my intake to one cup every two or three days. What I have found works very well for me is a prescription medication known as Modafinil (or Provigil). My typical dose is 100 mg.
Modafinil is a medication that promotes wakefulness. It’s most commonly used to treat sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, and shift work sleep disorder. Despite its primary use, Modafinil has also gained popularity as a nootropic due to its potential to enhance cognition, particularly in terms of increasing alertness and reducing fatigue.
The exact mechanism of action of Modafinil is not fully understood. It’s known to affect various neurotransmitters in the brain: chemicals that neurons use to communicate with each other. Some of the key neurotransmitters affected by Modafinil include dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine, and orexin (hypocretin).
Modafinil is thought to increase the availability of these neurotransmitters in parts of the brain that control wakefulness and alertness. For instance, it’s known to inhibit the reuptake of dopamine, which increases the amount of dopamine available in the brain. This is a similar mechanism to some stimulants, but Modafinil doesn’t tend to cause the same level of overstimulation or potential for addiction.
While Modafinil can be beneficial, it’s not without risks and potential side effects. Some of the common side effects include headache, nausea, anxiety and insomnia.
Personally, I haven’t experienced any of these side effects, except for insomnia if the Modafinil is taken within eight hours of sleep.
Modafinil should not be used when consuming alcohol. It’s also important to remember that Modafinil doesn’t replace the need for sleep.
My favorite skin product is called OneSkin, a product I use every day, twice per day. OneSkin’s product OS-1 addresses the root cause of skin aging, specifically senescent cells, which are damaged cells that build up in the body, contributing to aging and age-related disease. As senescent cells accumulate in our skin, they create wrinkles and sagging, produce inflammation, and also make us more susceptible to skin cancer. OS-1 is a 20 amino acid peptide. OneSkin’s experiments have shown that this proprietary peptide can significantly decrease the level of senescent cells, reducing the age of the skin by several years at a molecular level.
In addition to Lifeforce supplements/products listed above, following are supplements that I take as part of my Longevity Practices, at various times depending on my medical testing. You can evaluate which are appropriate for you, and at what dosages.
Creatine (Morning of Workouts): Creatine helps to generate ATP in skeletal muscles which is the body’s fuel source, it thus has been shown to enhance muscle strength, power, endurance and exercise performance which can contribute to maintaining overall physical function and mobility as we age, thereby promoting longevity. Since your body uses a lot of resources to make creatine, it can be helpful to take it to free up some of those resources.
Alpha Lipoic Acid: Alpha lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant that helps protect cells from oxidative stress. By neutralizing free radicals and supporting cellular, especially mitochondrial health, it may contribute to longevity by reducing the risk of age-related damage.
Selenomethionine: Selenomethionine is a form of selenium, a trace mineral that acts as an antioxidant and supports immune function. Adequate selenium levels have been associated with reduced risk of certain chronic diseases, potentially promoting longevity. You can usually get selenium from your food, but since many agricultural soils are deficient in selenium it can be important to supplement.
Lion’s Mane: Lion’s Mane is a mushroom with potential neuroprotective effects. It may support brain health by promoting the production of nerve growth factors and enhancing cognitive function, which could contribute to maintaining mental acuity and longevity.
Vitamin D w/K2: Vitamin D plays a crucial role in bone health and immune function. When combined with vitamin K2, it helps ensure calcium is properly utilized and deposited in bones, potentially reducing the risk of fractures and supporting overall health as we age. Vitamin K2 has also been shown to reduce arterial stiffness, by decreasing microcalcifications and lower the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Seed / Probiotic (30 Billion Bacteria): A healthy gut microbiome is essential for various aspects of health. A high-quality seed / probiotic supplement with a diverse range of beneficial bacteria can help support digestion, immune function, and potentially improve overall health and longevity.
CoQ10 w/PQQ: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) are both involved in cellular energy production and have antioxidant properties. These compounds may help protect mitochondria, the energy factories of cells, and support overall cellular health, potentially promoting longevity. Since statin drugs inhibit the enzyme that makes CoQ10 in our bodies, it is important to supplement with CoQ10 whenever taking a statin.
Quercetin: Quercetin is a flavonoid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It may help reduce oxidative stress, inflammation, and support cardiovascular health, which can contribute to overall longevity.
Xymogen (Methyl Protect): Xymogen’s Methyl Protect is a supplement containing B vitamins that is designed to support methylation, a key biochemical process involved in gene expression and cellular function. By optimizing methylation, it may help promote overall health and potentially contribute to longevity.
Magnesium Threonate & Magnesium Glycinate: Magnesium is an essential mineral involved in numerous physiological processes. Magnesium threonate can get into the brain and thus has been suggested to enhance brain function and support cognitive health, while magnesium glycinate may help with relaxation and sleep. By promoting brain and overall well-being, they may indirectly contribute to longevity.
ProdromeNeuro & ProdromeGlia: ProdromeNeuro and ProdromeGlia are supplements designed to support brain health and protect against neurodegenerative conditions. By providing nutrients and compounds that promote brain function and reduce oxidative stress, they may help maintain cognitive vitality and potentially contribute to longevity.
Arterosil: Arterosil is a supplement that has been shown to regenerate the endothelial glycocalyx which is the protective lining inside all of our blood vessels. It thus supports endothelial function, which is important for maintaining healthy blood vessels. By promoting proper blood flow and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, Arterosil may contribute to overall longevity by supporting heart health.
Taurine: Taurine is amazing for mitochondrial health, mitochondrial proteostasis, nfr2 upregulation and MTP pore control. I take 1,000 mg per day, five days per week.
NMN (Nicotinamide mononucleotide): NMN is a critical precursor to NAD+ (more below). I take 1 gram of NMN per day. I also take a product called Nuchido TIME+ which activates the NAD+ recycling pathway by activating NAMPT.
MORE ABOUT NMN: NMN is a molecule that plays a crucial role in our body’s energy production process. It’s a precursor to NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), a vital coenzyme present in every cell of our body, that plays a critical role in energy metabolism and maintaining proper cell functioning.
Research has shown a connection between NMN, NAD+ levels, and aging. As we age, the levels of NAD+ in our bodies tend to decrease, and this decrease is believed to be linked to various aspects of aging and age-related health issues. Here’s why NMN is important in the context of aging and longevity:
1. Cellular Energy Production: NMN helps produce NAD+, which is critical in the conversion of nutrients into usable energy. As we age, lower NAD+ levels can contribute to fatigue and other age-related health concerns.
2. DNA Repair: NAD+ assists in the repair of broken DNA strands, a process that becomes less efficient as we age. Therefore, maintaining NAD+ levels through NMN supplementation could potentially support DNA repair.
3. Sirtuin Activation: Sirtuins are a group of proteins believed to play a role in aging by controlling cellular health. They are dependent on NAD+, so more NMN might mean better functioning of these proteins.
4. Mitochondrial Health: NAD+ is important for mitochondrial function, and mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells, producing the energy necessary for cellular functions. Aging is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial function, so maintaining NAD+ levels with NMN could help maintain mitochondrial health.
5. Neuroprotection: Some research suggests that NAD+ can help protect neurons from age-related decline, potentially slowing the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.
It’s important to note that while these supplements have shown potential benefits, individual results may vary, and it’s always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.
Following are the therapeutic protocols that I am either participating in, or investigating under the Fountain Life Edge Membership. Note some of these are still in development.
Peptide Protocols: I’m looking at various peptide therapies aimed to improve a range of physiological processes including metabolism, growth and development, immune function, and tissue repair. (See the following pages for more details.)
Senolytics Protocol: I’m evaluating senolytic protocols aimed at eliminating senescent cells from the body and reducing the harmful effects they can have on tissues and organs.
Stem Cell Treatment: Stem cells are the precursor to all other cells in your body, they have the potential to repair, restore, replace, and regenerate cells, and could be used to treat many medical conditions and diseases. Today, the use of allogeneic stem cells (meaning stem cells from another individual, such as an umbilical cord derived stem cell treatment) are not approved by the FDA and are therefore not legal in the United States. Fountain Life has evaluated multiple centers outside the U.S. including in Mexico, Panama, the Caribbean and Costa Rica. Currently we advise our Fountain Members interested in Stem Cells to work with the Regenerative Medicine Institute (RMI) in Costa Rica (https://rmi-international.com/). Fountain Life is currently in development of a number of FDA Protocols that will be delivered to our members in our Orlando HQ under an “Investigational New Drug” protocol once approved in late 2023.
Exosomes: Exosomes are small vesicles containing growth and signaling factors produced by stem cells, used to communicate and stimulate repair and growth. Treatment with exosomes is a versatile and precisely targeted therapy that can be used to address conditions such as chronic pain, osteoarthritis, and musculoskeletal injuries. Currently, exosomes are not approved by the FDA and their use is investigational. I have used exosomes both locally, i.e. injection at sites of inflammation, and in my shoulder post-surgical repair of my rotator cuff. I’ve also used it to stimulate follicular growth on my scalp. Exosomes have also been used for an overall regenerative therapeutic when given intravenously. Today, exosomes are likely to be provided through Fountain Life under an IRB approved clinical trial.
Total Plasma Exchange (TPE): Total plasma exchange (TPE) is a medical procedure that removes and replaces the plasma in your blood. Plasma is the liquid part of blood that contains proteins, antibodies, and other substances. TPE is used to treat a variety of diseases, including: autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, hematological disorders and poisoning (wherein TPE can remove toxins that have been ingested or inhaled). TPE is not a cure for any disease, but it can be used to improve symptoms and prolong life. There is some evidence that TPE may have pro-longevity benefits. It’s also suggested that with aging, our blood accumulates harmful substances, which could possibly be removed with plasma exchange, potentially slowing down the aging process. For example, one study found that TPE increased the lifespan of mice by 30%. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings in humans.
The typical TPE protocol proposed by Dr. Dobri Kiprov (who pioneered much of this work) for longevity benefits is as follows:
Dr. Kiprov believes that TPE can help to slow down the aging process by removing harmful proteins and other substances from the blood. He has conducted several studies that have shown that TPE can improve cognitive function, reduce inflammation, and increase lifespan in animals. Here are some of the potential benefits of TPE for longevity:
Reduced inflammation: Inflammation is a major factor in aging and age-related diseases. TPE can help to reduce inflammation by removing harmful proteins and other substances from the blood.
Improved cognitive function: TPE has been shown to improve cognitive function in animals and humans. This is likely due to the removal of harmful proteins that can damage brain cells.
Increased lifespan: As mentioned above, several studies have shown that TPE can increase lifespan in animals. However, this has not yet been proven in humans.
Stem Cell Banking: Partnering with private, state-of-the art facilities, Fountain Life is facilitating its members in the collection, processing, and storing of their own “fat derived” and “bone-marrow” derived stem cells.
Biobanking: Biobanking of serum, plasma, whole cells (WBC), microbiome, saliva and urine. Partnering with a private, state-of-the-art biobank, we will facilitate the process of collecting, processing, storing, and distributing various biological samples for future purposes.
Under guidance from the Fountain Life Medical team, I’m considering and sometimes using peptides. Peptides are short chains of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. In medicine, peptides can be used as therapies for a variety of conditions. They are typically injected into the body, although other administration methods are also used. Peptides can serve a range of functions. Some act like hormones and others like neurotransmitters. Many control and influence how our bodies react to diet and physical exercise.
Following are the peptides I’ve used and / or am considering:
Peptide: BPC 157,
composed of 15 amino acids, is a partial sequence of body protection compound (BPC) that is discovered in and isolated from human gastric juice. Experimentally it has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of many different wounds, including tendons, muscles, nervous system and superior healing of damaged ligaments. Those who suffer from discomfort due to muscle sprains, tears and damage may benefit from treatment with this peptide. It can also help aid skin burns to heal at a faster rate and increase blood flow to damaged tissues. Animal studies suggest that BPC-157 has strong anti-inflammatory activity.
Common Formulas & Protocols
BPC-157 (10 mg) Lyophilized Vial - 300 mcg SQ injection nightly for thirty days BPC-157
(500 mcg) Capsule - One capsule daily for thirty days.
BPC-157 (500 mcg) Sublingual Troche - One troche daily for thirty days.
Selank is a synthetic peptide that was developed by the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It’s based on a naturally occurring immunomodulatory peptide called Tuftsin, which plays an important role in immune system responses. Selank is known for its potential nootropic and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects. It has been studied for its potential to improve anxiety, enhance cognitive functions, and modulate the immune system. Here are some specific areas of research:
Semax increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. BDNF is among the most active neurotrophins, which are chemicals that help to stimulate and control neurogenesis, the birth of new neurons in the brain. BDNF has been shown to play a role in neuroplasticity, which allows nerve cells in the brain to compensate for injury and adapt to new situations or changes in the environment. Basically, BDNF helps to support the survival of existing neurons and encourages the growth, regeneration, and creation of new neurons and synapses.
The understood benefits of Semax include: improving of cognitive function; improving long and short-term memory; helping to manage depression; improving non-proliferative diabetic neuropathy recovery from stroke/hypoxia; improving glaucoma optic neuropathy. Semax may also be helpful in the treatment of PTSD & ADHD neuroprotection.
Common Formulas & Protocols
Semax (7500 mcg/ml) Nasal Spray 3ml Bottle - 750 mcg (1 spray) each nostril daily.
Peptide: CJC-1295 / Ipamorelin
CJC 1295 is often prescribed by physicians as a growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) analog. CJC 1295 has been shown to increase growth hormone as well as IGF-I secretion and it has been able to do so in very large amounts. CJC 1295 stimulates growth
hormone secretion and will keep a steady increase of HGH and IGF-1 with no increase in prolactin, leading to fat loss, and increased protein synthesis thereby promoting growth. We suggest using the CJC 1295 in combination with Ipamorelin as it provides a synergistic
effect, generating five times the benefits of using the CJC 1295 or Ipamorelin alone. The combination allows for maximized release of GH because the CJC 1295 and Ipamorelin have different mechanisms of action and work on different receptors (GHRH-R & Ghrelin-R).
Subcutaneous administration of CJC 1295 resulted in sustained, dose-dependent increases in GH and IGF-I levels in healthy adults and was safe and relatively well tolerated, particularly at doses of 30 or 60 ug/ kg. There was evidence of a cumulative effect after
One of the most important elements of my Longevity Practices is creating and maintaining a Longevity Mindset.
A Longevity Mindset is one in which you believe in the ability of science to extend your healthspan, perhaps by ten or twenty years. Further, it is a belief (and an understanding) that during these additional decades, science isn’t standing still. Instead, health technologies are accelerating exponentially, continuing to make breakthroughs driven by AI, genome sequencing/editing, epigenetic modification, gene therapy—all of which are being focused on expanding healthspan and reversing disease.
A Longevity Mindset means becoming the “CEO of your own health” and recognizing that “Life is short, until you extend it.”
How long you live is a function of many factors: where you were born, your genetics, your diet, and your mindset. Most people imagine that longevity is mostly inherited, that the genetic cards you are dealt have predetermined your lifespan.
As I mentioned in the introduction and am repeating again here to make a crucial point, you may be surprised by the truth.
In 2018, after the analysis of a 54-million-person ancestry database, scientists announced that lifespan has little to do with genes.
In fact, heritability is accountable for only ~7% of your longevity.
Other studies peg this somewhat higher, estimating that heritability accounts for some 20% or 30% of your lifespan—which still means, at a minimum, that lifestyle choices account for 70% of your longevity.
The power of shaping your healthspan is much more in your hands than you might have imagined. While we’ve already discussed things like diet, exercise, and sleep, one of the biggest (underestimated) impacts on your healthspan is your mindset, which we’ll explore below.
There are seven key mindset and lifestyle areas (under your control) that fundamentally impact your healthspan. Let’s review each area together, and as we do, I invite you to ask yourself: “Where do I truly stand in this area? Where can I improve? What would it take for me to modify my beliefs and actions?”
#1. What Do You Honestly Believe About Your Healthspan? Understanding your ingrained beliefs about your expected healthspan is the first place to begin. At one end of the spectrum, you see life as short and precious—you’ll consider yourself lucky if you make it to 75 or 80 years old. At the other end, you’re focused on breaking through 100 years old with energy and passion, making “100 years old the new 60.”
In this latter mindset, you see aging as a disease that can be slowed, stopped, and perhaps even reversed.
#2. What Media Are You Consuming? The type of content you consume (e.g., books, blogs, movies, news) is constantly shaping how you think and directly impacting your Longevity Mindset. Are you reading the obituaries of old friends? Or are you reading books like Life Force, David Sinclair’s Lifespan, or Sergey Young’s Growing Young? Are you reading digital content about the latest political battle or are you reading www.LongevityInsider.org, a free, AI-enabled longevity newsletter, that summarizes daily breakthroughs and innovations from around the world?
#3. Who Do You Hang Out With? Who Makes
Up Your Community? The people you spend time with have perhaps the biggest impact on shaping what you believe and the actions you take. Are you actively building and deeply engaging with a community that is optimistic and youthful, despite their age? A group actively pursuing longevity and sharing best practices and encouraging one another?
#4. Are You Prioritizing Sleep? Sleep is a fundamental tool to optimize your healthspan. A great book that details this is Why We Sleep, by Dr. Matt Walker. We physiologically need eight hours of sleep per night. Do you believe the motto that “There’s plenty of time to sleep when I’m dead”? Or do you prioritize sleep and use the best available techniques to help you achieve eight healthy hours of sleep?
#5. How Healthy Is Your Diet? There is truth to the saying that “You are what you eat.” Do you eat whatever you want, whenever you want? Are you overweight, and eating way too much sugar? Or have you intentionally shaped your diet, minimizing sugars and high glycemic foods, while eating a diet high in whole-plants and sufficient protein to build muscle?
#6. How Much Exercise Do You Get? Along with your mindset, sufficient sleep, and a healthy diet, exercise is fundamental to longevity. The latest research on longevity makes it clear that increasing muscle mass is critical. So where are you on the exercise spectrum? At one end, you don’t exercise at all. On the other end, you’re getting in 10,000 steps a day, and exercise with weights at least three times each week, focusing on interval training and weightlifting.
#7. Annual Diagnostic Upload? Most of us are optimists about our bodies. But in reality, we have no idea what’s really going on internally—until that moment we end up in the hospital with some condition. Your job is to catch any illness (cancer, inflammatory disease, insulin resistance, etc.) as early as possible, when it is most easily reversed. And the best way to do this is to make use of the increasingly available onslaught of diagnostic technologies that can help you find disease at inception.
I want to close this Longevity Mindset Practice segment with a notion about the power of the human mind. Specifically, “the will to live.”
Mind over physiology.
A key mindset for longevity involves being excited about the future, having something to live for, to look forward to.
My coach, Dan Sullivan of Strategic Coach, puts it this way, “Always make your future bigger than your past.”
Tony Robbins says, “Having a bigger purpose to live for is absolutely key to longevity.”
My favorite story illustrating this comes from the annals of American history.
As it turns out, in an extraordinary demonstration of “the will to live,” two of America’s Founding Fathers, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, both willed themselves to live long enough to see the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.
Even though in the early 1800’s, the average life expectancy was only 44 years old, Jefferson (who was 83) and Adams (who was 90), made it to July 4, 1826, both dying on that exact date, the 50th anniversary of the nation they had founded.
Clearly, they had a goal in mind, something to live for.
So, how long do you think you’ll live? Until you’re 80 years old? Maybe 90?
What mindset or purpose would you require to set a target of 120 healthy years, and make it there?
Your health is your greatest wealth, and today is the most extraordinary time to be alive.
Please begin to change how you discuss your lifespan / healthspan with others.
Please begin to change how you discuss your lifespan / healthspan with others. Make it known to friends and family (with conviction) that you’re shooting for 100, 120, or even 156. Pick a number that inspires you and program that into your mind.
The results are powerful.
I’ll close with a compelling piece of data on why you should be optimistic about an extended healthspan, and why you should be optimistic in general!
In a study of 69,744 women and 1,429 men, published in the prestigious journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, it was found that optimistic people live as much as 15% longer than pessimists. The study was conducted over the course of three decades, controlling for health conditions, behaviors like diet and exercise, and other demographic information.
There is a lot to be grateful for, and a lot under your control.
The Blue Zones are regions of the world where people are known to live longer, healthier lives compared to the rest of the population. These areas have been identified through research conducted by the Blue Zones Project, a company that works to improve the health and well-being of communities around the world.https://www.webmd.com/healthy-aging/ss/slideshow-longer-life-secrets
Life Force: How New Breakthroughs in Precision Medicine Can Transform the Quality
of Your Life & Those You Love
by Tony Robbins, Peter H. Diamandis, MD and Robert Hariri, MD/PhD (2022)
Lifespan: Why We Age—and Why We Don’t Have To
by David Sinclairm PhD (2019)
Outlive: The Science and Art of Longevity
by Peter Attia, MD (2022)
Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams
by Matthew Walker, PhD (2017)
The Science and Technology of Growing Young: An Insider’s Guide to the Breakthroughs that Will Dramatically Extend Our Lifespan . . . and What You Can Do Right Now
by Sergey Young (2021)
Young Forever: Live Longer, Healthier, and Happier Using the Latest Science
by Mark Hyman, MD (2022)
The Kaufmann Protocol: Why We Age and How to Stop It
by Sandra Kaufmann, MD (2018)
Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever
by Ray Kurzweil (2004)
Ageless: The New Science of Getting Older Without Getting Old
by Andrew Steele, PhD (2021)
Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime
by Aubrey de Grey, PhD (2007)
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OneSkin’s OS-1 – https://diamandis.net/oneskin
A Singularity Group Leadership Program
We will experience more change this coming decade than we have in the entire past century.
Converging exponential technologies like AI, Robotics, AR/VR, Quantum, and Biotech are disrupting and reinventing every industry and business model
How do you surf this tsunami of change, survive, and thrive?
The answer lies in your access to Knowledge and Community.
Knowledge about the breakthroughs expected over the next two to three years.
This Knowledge comes from an incredible Faculty curated by Peter Diamandis at his private leadership summit called Abundance360.
Every year, Peter gathers Faculty who are industry disruptors and changemakers. Picture yourself learning from visionaries and having conversations with leaders such as David Sinclair, PhD; Palmer Luckey; Jacqueline Novogratz; Sam Altman; Marc Benioff; Tony Robbins; Eric Schmidt; Ray Kurzweil; Emad Mostaque; will.i.am; Sal Khan; Salim Ismail; Andrew Ng; and Martine Rothblatt (just to name a handful over the past few years).
Even more important than Knowledge is Community.
A Community that understands your challenges and inspires you to pursue your Massive Transformative Purpose (MTP) and Moonshot(s).
Community is core to Abundance360. Our members are hand-selected and carefully cultivated—fellow entrepreneurs, investors, business owners, and CEOs, running businesses valued from $10M to $10B.
Abundance360 members believe that “The day before something is truly a breakthrough it’s a crazy idea.” They also believe that “We are living during the most extraordinary time ever in human history!”
Having the right Knowledge and Community can be the difference between thriving in your business—or getting disrupted and crushed by the tsunami of change.
This is the essence of Abundance360: Singularity University’s highest-level leadership program that includes an annual 4 ½ day Summit, hands-on quarterly Workshops, regular Masterminds, one-on-one member matching, and a vibrant close-knit Community with an uncompromising Mission.
Abundance360 is by invitation only. If you’re interested in learning more about Peter’s year-round Abundance360 leadership program, visit www.Abundance360.com to learn more an request and invitation.
If the answer is yes, then consider joining Peter Diamandis on his annual Abundance Platinum Longevity Trip.
Every year, Peter runs two VIP “Abundance Platinum Longevity Trips” which are 5-Day/5-Star deep dives into the cutting-edge world of biotech/longevity and age-reversal. On this Trip you’ll meet with the top 50 scientists, startup entrepreneurs, and labs pioneering
these fields. You will also learn about breakthroughs against a wide range of chronic diseases.
In 2023, some of the world-changing labs and faculty we’re visiting include: David Sinclair, PhD, Harvard Center for Biology of Aging Research; George Church, PhD, Harvard Wyss Institute; Dean Kamen, PhD, Advanced Regenerative Manufacturing Institute (ARMI); and Fountain Life, New York—just to name a few.
In 2024, one Trip will take place on September 11 - 15, and the second between October 9 - 13, 2024. Both Trips are identical (capped at 40 participants per trip), during which Peter will spend all 5 days with you as your private guide and provocateur. Through this personalized, action-packed program, Peter’s mission is to give you an exclusive, first-hand exposure to the major players, scientists, companies, and treatments in the longevity and vitality arena.
If you want to learn more about the Abundance Platinum Longevity Trip, go to https://www.abundance360.com/longevity and indicate your interest and we’ll set up an interview!