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Peter’s Longevity Practices

by Peter H. Diamandis, MD

Fall 2023

Your Playbook on Sleep, Diet, Exercise, Mindset, Medications & Not Dying from Something Stupid.

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My Financial Interests

(Potential “Conflicts of Interest” Statement):

I’m an investor in more than 100 biotech and health tech companies (through my venture fund BOLD Capital Partners), and an advisor to more than 30+ companies (also in the Biotech and Health Tech space) in which I have a small equity interest.
In the spirit of full transparency, my major financial (equity) holdings in the Biotech/ Health-Tech arena are with two private companies: Lifeforce and Fountain Life. And two public companies: Vaxxinity (VAXX) and Celularity (CELU).

As a VC and entrepreneurial start-up advisor (through PHD Advisory Services), I am actively searching the world for the most impactful and efficacious health and biotech breakthroughs. When I find these companies, I consider them for investment, and I consider supporting them as an advisor.

Many of these companies – because they are transformative and exciting -- are listed and discussed in my newest book, “Longevity: Your Practical Playbook on Sleep, Diet, Exercise, Mindset, Medications, and Not Dying from Something Stupid”.

I have incorporated many of these companies in this book for the same reason I have invested in them. 


Longevity Book References



Page 12

“In this first part of this book, we’ll look briefly at the context in which this healthspan revolution is taking place and explore the concept of ‘longevity escape velocity’”

“Simply put, converging exponential technologies such as AI, genomics, and other ‘omics technologies’”

  • Horgan, R.P. and Kenny, L.C., 2011. ‘Omic’ technologies: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, 13(3), pp.189-195.
Page 13

“It turns out that bowhead whales from the Arctic are able to live for 200 years”

“Greenland sharks double that life expectancy with an impressive lifespan of 400 and 500 years”

“These sharks can even have pups (babies) at the age of 200 years old”

Chapter 1: Peter’s Longevity Diet

Page 21

“I avoid the red meat in beef because of its high saturated fat content and the association of red meat with cancer, especially colon cancer as well as cardiovascular disease”

Page 22

“Ever heard of vitamin O (oxygen)? This is another important concept that Dr. Messier has shared with me—it’s all about breathing deep to activate your parasympathetic system”

  • Zaccaro, A. et al., 2018. How breath-control can change your life: A systematic review on psycho-physiological correlates of slow breathing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, [online] 12(353), pp.1-16. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00353.
Page 23

“...catabolic AMPK pathway which stimulates autophagy and cleans up all the damaged cells and proteins”

  • Jia, J. et al., 2020. AMPK, a Regulator of Metabolism and Autophagy, Is Activated by Lysosomal Damage via a Novel Galectin-Directed Ubiquitin Signal Transduction System. Molecular Cell, [online] 77(5), pp.951-969.e9. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2019.12.028.
Page 26

“A 2020 clinical trial of 116 volunteers on a sixteen hour (off), eight hour (on) eating regimen found no weight loss and no cardiometabolic benefits (see Peter Attia’s’ book Outlived for details”

  • Lowe, D.A. et al., 2020. Effects of Time-Restricted Eating on Weight Loss and Other Metabolic Parameters in Women and Men With Overweight and Obesity: The TREAT Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, [online] 180(11). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4153.
Page 27

“Picture this: you're seated at your dinner table, a colorful plate of food before you, and you're about to take the first bite. What if I told you that the order in which you eat your meal could have a significant impact on your health, specifically in managing blood sugar levels and supporting weight control? Welcome to the world of meal sequencing, a concept that modern dietetic sciences have unveiled as a powerful tool in the quest for better nutrition”

Chapter 2: Peter’s Exercise Practice

Page 29

“One study, published in the journal Aging, looked at data from over 10,000 people and found that those with the highest muscle mass were 30% less likely to die during the study period than those with the lowest muscle mass”

  • Srikanthan, P. and Karlamangla, A.S., 2014. Muscle mass index as a predictor of longevity in older adults. The American Journal of Medicine, [online] 127(6), pp.547-553. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.02.007.

“Another study, published in the journal The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, found that people with sarcopenia (a condition characterized by low muscle mass) had a 50% increased risk of death from all causes”

  • Kalyani, R.R. et al., 2014. Age-related and disease-related muscle loss: the effect of diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2(10), pp.819-829. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70034-8.

“...adults over the age of 65 years old, the one-year mortality rate after a hip fracture is 21% for those whose fracture is surgically repaired”

  • Downey, C. et al., 2019. Changing trends in the mortality rate at 1-year post hip fracture - a systematic review. World Journal of Orthopedics, [online] 10(3), pp.166–175. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5312/wjo.v10.i3.166.
Page 30

“Building muscle needs to become part of your regular routine. Muscle mass decreases approximately 3–8% per decade after the age of 30 and this rate of decline is even higher after the age of 60”

“...according to a 2019 study in Acta Orthopaedica, in adults over the age of 65 years old, the one-year mortality rate after a hip fracture is 21% for those whose fracture is surgically repaired”

  • Downey, C. et al., 2019. Changing trends in the mortality rate at 1-year post hip fracture - a systematic review. *World Journal of Orthopedics*, 10(3), pp.166–175. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5312/wjo.v10.i3.166
Page 35

“...study found that individuals who engaged in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week had a 28% lower risk of death from any cause”

  • Lee, D.H. et al., 2022. Long-Term Leisure-Time Physical Activity Intensity and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort of US Adults. Circulation, [online] 146(7), pp.523–534. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.121.058162.

“With data from over 1 million people, the study found that individuals who engaged in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week had a 28% lower risk of death from any cause”

  • Lee, D.H. et al., 2022. Long-Term Leisure-Time Physical Activity Intensity and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort of US Adults. *Circulation*, 146(7), pp.523–534. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.121.058162.

“Subjects who engaged in 750 minutes per week—or 12.5 hours—had a mind-blowing 42% lower risk of death compared to those who never exercised”

  • Warburton, D.E.R. et al., 2006. Health Benefits of Physical activity: the Evidence. *Canadian Medical Association Journal*, 174(6), pp.801–809. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.051351.

“Another recent study found that participants who walked over 4,000 steps a day had healthier brain tissue, better memory, as well as superior cognitive function, compared to those who walked fewer than 4,000 steps per day”

  • Siddarth, P. et al., 2018. Physical Activity and Hippocampal Sub-Region Structure in Older Adults with Memory Complaints. *Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease*, 61(3), pp.1089–1096. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-170586.

Chapter 3: Peter’s Sleep Practices

Page 41

“Every spring when we move the clocks forward one hour (Day-Light Savings Time), and we all lose an hour of sleep, hospitals report a 24% spike in heart-attack visits around the US”

Page 45

“According to a study in Rand Health Quarterly, poor-quality sleep costs the US over $400 billion per year in lost productivity. The same study estimates that more than half a million days of full-time work are lost every year due to people sleeping less than six hours”

Chapter 4: Peter’s Annual Fountain Life Upload

Page 54

“For example, according to the American Cancer Society's estimates, approximately 97,610 new melanoma will be diagnosed in the United States in 2023 (about 58,120 in men and 39,490 in women). About 7,990 people are expected to die of melanoma (about 5,420 men and 2,570 women)”

Chapter 5: Peter’s Meds, Supplements & Therapeutics

Page 61

“One of my risks from family history and genetics is heart disease secondary to hypercholesterolemia”

“... keep my ApoB levels at an optimal range”

Page 63

“…both low and high levels of IGF-1 have been associated with lifespan in various studies”

  • Vitale, G. et al., 2019. ROLE of IGF-1 System in the Modulation of Longevity: Controversies and New Insights From a Centenarians’ Perspective. *Frontiers in Endocrinology*, 10. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00027.
Page 65

“As senescent cells accumulate in our skin, they create wrinkles and sagging, produce inflammation, and also make us more susceptible to skin cancer”

  • Csekes, E. and Račková, L., 2021. Skin Aging, Cellular Senescence and Natural Polyphenols. *International Journal of Molecular Sciences*, 22(23), p.12641. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312641.
Page 69

“His team gave NMN (Nicotinamide mononucleotide), the precursor molecule that is converted into NAD+ inside our cells, to twenty-month-old mice (equivalent to a human in their 60’s)”

  • Uddin, G.M. et al., 2017. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation ameliorates the impact of maternal obesity in mice: comparison with exercise. *Scientific Reports*, 7(1). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14866-z.
Page 71

“For example, one study found that TPE increased the lifespan of mice by 30%. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings in humans”

Page 74

“The global stem cell therapy market size was estimated at $11.22 billion in 2022 and it is projected to reach around $31.41 billion by 2030 and growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.73% during the forecast period 2023 to 2030”

Chapter 6: Peter’s Longevity Mindset

Page 84

“In a study of 69,744 women and 1,429 men, published in the prestigious journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, it was found that optimistic people live as much as 15% longer than pessimists”

  • Lee, L.O. et al., 2019. Optimism is associated with exceptional longevity in 2 epidemiologic cohorts of men and women. *Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences*, 116(37), pp.18357–18362. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900712116.
Page 86

“We show that a slowdown in aging that increases life expectancy by 1 year is worth US$38 trillion, and by 10 years, US$367 trillion. Ultimately, the more progress that is made in improving how we age, the greater the value of further improvements”

Chapter 7: Women’s Health

Page 88

“Women tend to have a more robust immune response for both innate (early) and adaptive (late) immunity”

Page 89

“For example, although hormones like estrogen have a profound effect on the brain, less than 0.5% of neuroimaging literature takes this into account, and only 10% of immune studies analyze data by sex despite the enormous effects sex plays in immune function”

  • Klein, S.L. and Flanagan, K.L., 2016. Sex differences in immune responses. Nature Reviews Immunology, [online] 16(10), pp.626-638. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2016.90.
Page 89-90

“A recent study even showed that our brains remodel themselves in sync with our menstrual cycle where high estrogen and low progesterone levels as found in midcycle drive expansion of areas of the brain needed for episodic memory and spatial cognition”

  • Zsido, R.G. et al., 2023. Ultra-high-field 7T MRI reveals changes in human medial temporal lobe volume in female adults during menstrual cycle. *Nature Mental Health*, 1(10), pp.761–771. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s44220-023-00125-w.
Page 100

“Recognizing that toxins aren't limited to beauty products, I prioritize organic food. By doing so, I aim to minimize the potential harm from dietary sources containing herbicides and pesticides”

  • Vigar, V. et al., 2019. A Systematic Review of Organic Versus Conventional Food Consumption: Is There a Measurable Benefit on Human Health? *Nutrients*, 12(1), p.7. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010007.
Page 101

“I also use binaural beats”

  • Al-Shargie, F. et al., 2022. Stress management using fNIRS and binaural beats stimulation. *Biomedical Optics Express*, 13(6), pp.3552-3575. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1364/BOE.455097.
Page 102

“...social support is critical for managing stress and anxiety”

“Cold plunges may have a wonderful hormetic effect on longevity…”

  • Adjirackor, N.A. et al., 2020. Eukaryotic response to hypothermia in relation to integrated stress responses. *Cell Stress and Chaperones*, 25, pp.833–846. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12192-020-01135-8.
Page 103

“While yoga may be a female stereotype, it is still providing significant benefits…”

  • Woodyard, C., 2011. Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life. *International Journal of Yoga*, 4(2), pp.49-54. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.85485.

“It turns out that on average women need slightly more sleep than men…”